Eritrea's flag    Eritrea


Official language: Tigrigna, Arabic, English
Currency: Eritrea Nakfa
Capital City: Asmara
Area: 117600km2
Subregional membership(s): East Africa, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Least developed countires, Sub-Saharan Africa, Non-Oil Producing, Non-Oil LDCs, Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) , Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD)


5.1K
2017

Mid-year population
3.9B
2014

GDP at current prices, USD
49.9
2013

Under five mortality rate
49.6
2015

Primary enrolment ratio
Population and migration
Indicator197019711972197319741975197619771978197919801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017
Average annual population growth rate - Total (%)2.72.72.72.82.82.82.82.82.82.92.92.92.92.93.03.03.13.02.61.91.10.3-0.2-0.20.20.91.52.12.52.93.23.53.63.53.22.92.52.22.12.12.12.12.12.22.22.32.4
Crude birth rate (per 1000 population)47.347.247.046.946.846.746.646.646.546.546.546.546.546.446.245.945.645.144.543.843.042.141.240.239.338.437.737.236.836.636.636.837.137.337.637.837.937.837.637.336.836.235.534.834.133.432.7
Crude death rate (per 1000 population)21.721.320.920.520.219.819.619.319.118.918.718.518.318.017.717.316.916.516.015.615.114.614.013.412.712.011.410.810.39.89.59.29.08.98.78.68.48.28.07.87.67.37.16.86.66.46.2
Life expectancy at birth - Total (years)40.540.941.341.641.942.242.542.742.943.143.343.643.844.244.645.045.646.246.847.548.349.049.950.751.652.453.354.154.855.556.156.657.257.758.258.759.259.760.360.961.562.162.763.363.864.264.6
Life expectancy at birth - Female (years)43.043.443.744.044.244.544.744.845.045.245.345.645.946.246.647.147.748.349.049.750.551.352.153.053.954.755.656.357.157.758.358.959.459.960.460.961.462.062.663.263.864.364.965.465.966.366.7
Life expectancy at birth - Male (years)38.138.538.939.339.740.140.440.741.041.241.441.641.942.242.643.043.544.144.745.446.146.947.748.549.450.251.051.852.553.253.954.454.955.455.956.456.957.558.058.759.359.960.561.161.662.062.4
Mid-year population - Total (millions)1.81.91.92.02.02.12.12.22.32.32.42.52.52.62.72.82.82.93.03.13.13.23.23.23.13.23.23.33.33.43.53.73.83.94.14.04.14.24.24.34.44.54.64.74.74.85.05.1
Mid-year population - Female (%)50.350.350.350.250.250.350.450.550.650.750.850.850.950.950.950.950.950.950.950.951.051.051.151.151.251.251.251.251.251.151.151.051.051.051.050.950.950.950.850.850.850.750.7
Mid-year population - Female (thousands)913.3938.2964.0990.91,0191,0471,0761,1061,1381,1701,2041,2391,2741,3111,3491,3901,4331,4781,5211,5571,5811,5911,5911,5861,5851,5931,6121,6411,6791,7251,7771,8361,9021,9712,0391,9842,0332,0762,1152,1532,1932,2352,2782,3222,3692,4192,4722,529
Mid-year population - Male (thousands)892.1916.2941.4967.6994.81,0231,0521,0821,1141,1461,1801,2151,2511,2881,3261,3671,4101,4561,4991,5341,5581,5691,5691,5641,5631,5711,5911,6201,6581,7051,7581,8191,8861,9572,0261,9852,0342,0782,1182,1572,1982,2402,2832,3292,3772,4282,4822,540
Mid-year population - Urban (%)12.612.812.913.113.313.513.613.814.014.214.414.614.714.915.115.215.315.515.615.715.815.916.116.216.416.516.716.917.117.317.617.818.118.318.618.919.219.519.920.220.621.021.421.822.222.6
Net reproduction rate (per woman)2.12.11.9
Population: 0-14 - Total (thousands)812.9838.8864.3889.9915.9942.6972.91,0031,0341,0651,0981,1341,1701,2061,2441,2821,3281,3761,4201,4541,4741,5051,5231,5351,5491,5711,5701,5761,5901,6091,6331,6531,6781,7061,7341,6261,6681,7071,7451,7851,8281,8711,9151,9602,0052,0502,0842,118
Population: 0-14 - Female (thousands)407.9420.9433.8446.7459.8473.1487.9502.8517.7533.0548.7566.0583.4601.0618.9637.3659.9683.0704.4720.9730.5745.6754.6760.3766.8777.4776.4779.1785.3794.2805.5814.4826.0839.1852.2864.2886.5907.5928.1949.7972.8996.41,0211,0451,0701,0941,113
Population: 0-14 - Male (thousands)405.1417.9430.5443.2456.1469.5484.9500.5516.3532.5549.2567.9586.6605.4624.6644.3668.2692.7715.5733.2743.5759.3768.9774.9782.0793.5793.4797.2804.6815.0827.9838.5852.0867.0881.9895.7919.8942.5964.9988.21,0131,0381,0641,0901,1161,1421,162
Population: 15-64 - Total (thousands)960.2982.61,0071,0351,0631,0931,1201,1491,1801,2131,2481,2801,3141,3501,3891,4311,4701,5111,5521,5871,6151,6041,5841,5621,5451,5391,5771,6251,6861,7561,8341,9312,0352,1422,2472,2072,2582,3012,3382,3722,4072,4432,4802,5212,5672,6202,6902,768
Population: 15-64 - Female (thousands)484.9496.3508.9522.6537.0552.1566.0580.7596.3613.0630.7647.4664.9683.4703.4724.8744.3765.5786.4804.5818.5813.3803.7792.9784.6781.8800.6825.1855.3890.4929.6977.71,0301,0831,1351,1831,2141,2411,2641,2861,3081,3301,3521,3761,4031,4331,472
Population: 15-64 - Male (thousands)475.4486.3498.6512.0526.2541.1554.3568.5583.7599.8617.0632.7649.3667.0686.1706.6725.3745.5765.4782.7796.3790.6780.6769.4760.8757.6776.1800.4830.4865.6904.7952.91,0051,0591,1121,1601,1911,2191,2431,2651,2881,3111,3351,3601,3891,4211,462
Population: 65+ - Total (thousands)32.333.033.634.034.334.435.436.437.137.738.239.640.841.842.743.545.447.248.749.750.351.852.853.353.653.856.258.861.664.5113.7118.3122.9127.6132.0135.9141.1145.6149.5153.2156.6161.4166.1170.5174.2177.1160.7162.0
Population: 65+ - Female (thousands)20.621.021.321.621.821.922.523.123.523.924.325.125.826.427.027.528.629.730.631.231.632.533.033.333.633.835.136.638.239.941.744.046.448.851.253.556.158.560.763.165.568.872.275.678.981.985.0
Population: 65+ - Male (thousands)11.712.012.312.412.512.512.913.313.613.813.914.515.015.415.716.016.817.518.118.518.619.319.820.020.120.021.122.223.424.525.727.529.331.032.734.336.338.139.741.443.045.848.551.253.755.758.1
Total fertility rate (per woman)6.76.66.66.66.66.66.66.66.66.76.76.76.76.76.76.66.66.66.56.56.46.36.26.16.05.95.85.75.65.45.35.25.25.15.04.94.94.84.84.74.64.54.44.44.34.24.1
Data Source
United Nations Population Division
Health
Indicator19901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Condom use to overall contraceptive use among currently married women 15-49 years old (%)3.87.5
Contraceptive use among currently married women 15-49 years old (%)8.08.0
Death rate associated with malaria per 100,000 population - Total (per 100000 population)4.0
HIV prevalence among population aged 15-49 years old - Total (%)1.31.21.11.00.90.90.80.80.70.7
Infant mortality rate (Per 1000 live births)58.355.853.451.249.247.245.443.742.140.739.438.237.036.035.034.1
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100000 live births)1,5901,5201,4301,3201,2101,100977.0900.0829.0770.0733.0700.0669.0647.0627.0619.0615.0619.0614.0599.0579.0561.0540.0533.0524.0501.0
Men 15-24 years old with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)33.8
Neo-natal mortality - Total (Per 1000 live births)18.0
Percentage of children under-five and underweight (%)34.538.8
Percentage of mothers provided at least one antenatal care - Total (%)70.070.070.070.070.070.070.070.0
Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age - Total (%)34.538.8
Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (%)34.051.058.066.073.079.088.076.084.083.092.096.095.095.097.097.099.099.099.098.096.0
Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets (%)4.048.920.4
Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs (%)4.013.11.5
Proportion of population using improved drinking water source - Total (%)54.054.055.055.056.056.057.058.058.058.058.0
Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs (%)42.943.048.5
Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities - Total (%)13.013.014.014.014.015.015.015.015.016.016.0
Tuberculosis incidence rate per year per 100,000 population - Mid-point (number)232223215206189181173165149141133127115111107100979592
Tuberculosis prevalence rate per 100,000 population - Upper bound (number)718550551625664679647575498407333338335321311305298292288282275268260252
Tuberculosis treatment success rate under DOTS (%)83.073.044.080.085.085.088.090.088.084.086.086.076.087.0
Under five mortality rate (both sexes) (Per 1000 live births)89.369.866.663.560.658.055.653.651.649.9
Women 15-24 years old with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)24.7
Data Source
United Nations Statistics Division
World Bank
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
World Health Organization
Education
Indicator19961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Adult literacy rate - Total (%)52.571.673.8
Adult literacy rate - Female (%)40.262.765.5
Adult literacy rate - Male (%)65.480.982.4
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Total (%)48.554.655.361.567.270.270.668.061.357.053.148.951.352.951.251.249.6
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Female (%)44.349.650.355.160.462.963.661.456.352.048.745.146.848.447.247.245.9
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Male (%)52.759.660.267.773.777.377.574.466.161.857.452.755.557.355.255.153.2
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Total (%)20.523.023.324.325.125.728.529.929.030.932.934.135.336.635.530.6
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Female (%)16.819.019.519.219.818.721.422.724.325.927.629.731.232.431.6
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Male (%)24.127.027.129.330.232.635.537.033.735.838.138.439.340.639.3
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Total (%)1.11.11.31.31.01.72.02.0
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Female (%)0.30.30.40.40.31.01.31.7
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Male (%)2.02.02.52.31.82.93.43.4
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Total (%)42.550.252.140.4
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Female (%)37.044.347.536.3
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Male (%)47.855.956.544.3
Mean years of schooling (years)3.73.93.93.93.93.9
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Female (%)14.816.516.316.016.516.418.319.621.022.224.226.827.728.426.2
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Male (%)18.220.320.121.422.125.526.928.628.730.432.434.334.134.831.0
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary education - Total (rate)47.047.544.844.146.746.747.547.247.943.038.538.040.540.940.3
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary education - Total (rate)50.754.152.449.353.547.851.454.449.442.738.739.537.938.5
Pupil-teacher ratio, tertiary education - Total (rate)21.716.521.621.610.816.119.220.3
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (ratio)0.80.80.80.80.80.80.80.8
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education (ratio)0.70.70.70.70.70.70.70.70.60.60.60.70.70.70.80.80.8
Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education (ratio)0.30.40.5
School life Expectancy in Primary - Total (years)2.52.82.83.13.33.53.53.43.12.92.72.52.62.72.7
School life Expectancy in Primary - Female (years)2.32.52.52.83.03.13.23.12.82.62.52.32.32.42.5
School life Expectancy in Primary - Male (years)2.83.13.03.43.73.93.93.73.33.12.92.72.82.92.9
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Total (years)1.31.51.51.51.61.82.02.12.02.22.32.42.52.62.6
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Female (years)1.11.21.21.21.21.31.51.61.71.81.92.12.22.32.3
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Male (years)1.61.81.81.91.92.42.52.62.42.52.72.72.82.82.9
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Total (years)0.10.10.10.10.10.10.10.1
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Female (years)0.00.00.00.00.00.10.10.1
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Male (years)0.10.10.10.10.10.10.20.2
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Total (%)93.960.581.686.280.979.273.760.073.373.169.077.6
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Female (%)91.560.282.173.474.169.661.068.672.066.977.1
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Male (%)95.960.989.486.983.577.159.177.574.171.078.0
Data Source
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
National accounts
Indicator199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - US dollars (billions)3.9
GDP per capita (US dollars)105.92121.46138.27160.3200.38202.18233.7239.85242.51231.42199.81205.85192.51221.53272.83262.07281.38299.11306.67404.2451.43544.47632.02688.98
GDP, PPP (current international USD) - Current, intl. dollar (millions)2,4012,7753,1993,9494,1154,5684,9825,1585,2854,7385,2325,4965,4975,7575,8766,1185,6285,8916,0936,7597,3677,7158,2338,713
GNI per capita (US dollars)105.92121.46626.29682.73748.04
GNI per capita (US dollars)898.271,0501,3001,3751,4911,6091,6441,6231,5301,6351,6311,5991,6591,7001,7091,7571,6241,7511,8172,040
Gross investment - as % of GDP (%)22.035.329.626.520.320.313.712.712.79.39.310.09.58.77.97.67.4
Gross National Income - US dollars (millions)332.5383.93,0643,4133,8234,740
Gross National Income - US dollars (millions)2,8043,2544,0364,2684,6725,1225,3295,3995,2265,7575,9336,0186,4566,7967,0367,3956,9487,6808,1349,282
Gross national saving - as % of GDP (%)-26.5-15.2-23.5-34.6-33.8-28.4-17.8-10.3-9.0-9.7-9.31.25.93.64.01.34.0
Real GDP growth rate (%)11.711.312.912.920.92.39.17.92.00.2-12.48.83.0-2.71.5-1.01.4-9.83.92.28.77.03.15.04.8
Structure of demand at current market prices: Exports of goods and services (%)21.222.511.429.626.621.027.126.513.68.39.710.811.86.45.86.26.95.84.44.54.814.419.117.318.9
Structure of demand at current market prices: General government final consumption expenditure (%)25.825.920.830.925.938.432.723.943.746.154.842.739.746.636.635.225.925.626.420.123.921.119.219.219.3
Structure of demand at current market prices: Gross capital formation (%)13.716.67.716.725.222.326.930.530.440.122.035.329.626.520.320.313.712.712.79.39.310.09.58.88.0
Structure of demand at current market prices: Household consumption expenditure (%)98.799.3104.992.0101.096.194.395.985.971.471.872.583.888.097.293.291.984.782.689.585.477.774.976.878.3
Structure of demand at current market prices: Imports of goods and services (%)-59.4-64.2-44.9-69.2-78.7-77.8-81.0-76.8-73.7-65.9-58.2-61.3-64.8-67.6-59.8-54.9-38.4-28.8-26.1-23.4-23.4-23.2-22.8-22.1-24.5
Structure of output at current market prices: Agriculture (%)26.325.830.622.424.420.918.016.925.523.517.911.712.911.624.226.125.417.414.5
Structure of output at current market prices: Agriculture (%)30.238.134.033.735.334.317.2
Structure of output at current market prices: Industry (%)13.914.012.015.714.216.821.023.421.121.622.524.821.421.321.919.320.126.922.5
Structure of output at current market prices: Industry (%)45.946.348.346.547.047.323.5
Structure of output at current market prices: of which manufacturing (%)8.58.38.39.07.79.09.610.79.49.510.811.79.99.37.36.45.76.85.7
Structure of output at current market prices: of which manufacturing (%)22.312.112.311.912.112.16.0
Structure of output at current market prices: Services (%)59.860.257.461.961.462.361.059.753.454.959.663.565.767.153.954.654.555.863.0
Structure of output at current market prices: Services (%)123.9115.6117.7119.8117.7118.459.3
Data Source
United Nations Statistics Division
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
World Bank
Economic Commission for Afirca
Prices
Indicator199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
All items (index)46.2548.4754.8461.4167.7370.2676.9183.37100114.63133.97164.34205.61231.32266.16290.93348.9464.17516.28536.41568.67605.37666.15726.1
All items - Annual change, inflation (%)4.813.212.010.33.79.58.420.014.616.922.725.112.515.19.319.933.011.23.96.06.510.09.0
Data Source
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Energy
Indicator1996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary education - Total (rate)47.047.544.844.146.746.747.547.247.943.038.538.040.540.940.3
Seats held by women in national parliament (%)14.714.714.722.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.022.0
Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (%)31.1
Women 15-24 years old with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)24.7
Data Source
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Inter-Parliamentary Union
United Nations Statistics Division
Tourism
Indicator19951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011
International tourism receipts - US dollars (millions)60.061.046.026.0
International tourist arrivals - Total (thousands)78.081.070.079.084.0107.0
Rooms in hotels and similar establishments (thousands)3.33.43.84.14.34.54.54.24.14.75.45.44.74.85.15.75.4
Data Source
World Bank
World Tourism Organization
Transport
Indicator2010
Paved Road (% of total) (%)21.8
Data Source
International Road Federation
Information society
Indicator2000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Fixed telephone lines (per 100 inhabitants) (number)0.750.720.750.870.940.990.980.980.98
Internet users per 100 inhabitants (%)0.40.50.50.60.70.80.91.0
Mobile telephone subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (%)0.00.00.00.00.40.81.21.62.02.53.24.15.05.66.47.1
Data Source
World Bank
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
International trade
Indicator199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Section 0: Food and live animals - Export, US dollars (millions)11.08.837.72.4
Section 0: Food and live animals - Import, US dollars (millions)110.4110.9153.0175.1
Section 1: Beverages and tobacco - Export, US dollars (millions)0.00.10.20.0
Section 1: Beverages and tobacco - Import, US dollars (millions)1.32.35.52.3
Total trade - Export, US dollars (millions)16.442.078.086.098.056.828.120.737.019.051.811.311.312.313.211.211.013.0430.0480.0337.0664.2
Total trade - Export, US dollars (millions)19.9
Total trade - Import, US dollars (millions)351.0348.9488.9453.5552.8525.3508.3510.2471.4423.0537.9480.0490.0495.0510.0601.5590.0660.0950.0970.01,0301,131
Total trade - Import, US dollars (millions)1,299
Data Source
United Nations Statistics Division
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Banking, insurance, financial statistics
Indicator200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)9.6311.3113.9613.8813.7915.3715.3815.3815.3815.3815.3815.3815.3815.3815.38
Data Source
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Government finance fiscal and public sector statistics
Indicator1995199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Debt service ratio (ratio)4.3
Net ODA (% of GNI) (%)25.323.018.122.321.425.037.831.236.824.232.110.512.110.57.87.75.2
Total external debt - as % of GDP (%)169.5184.6188.4204.3149.7158.9154.3156.7174.9144.6143.8133.0127.6128.4126.5127.1125.5
Data Source
World Bank
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Balance of payments
Indicator19901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015
Carbon Dioxide Emission - metric tons (thousands)608.7630.7605.1726.1770.1766.4561.1579.4414.4513.4513.4520.7
CO2 emissions per capita (metric tons)0.170.180.130.130.090.110.110.11
CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) (Kilograms)0.050.060.060.090.100.110.110.100.090.120.120.120.090.090.070.080.080.08
Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs in ODP (metric tons)3.3054.0043.2042.7026.8026.5051.4031.305.104.003.803.201.101.001.001.00
Energy use (Kg oil equivalent) per $1,000 (PPP) GDP (per 1000 population)253.0234.0199.0204.0196.0180.0115.0119.0124.0120.0117.0129.0118.0118.0109.0111.0116.0119.0120.0113.0
Forest Area as % of Land Area (%)15.0
Forest Area as % of Land Area (%)15.615.415.315.315.315.215.215.115.115.0
Land area covered by forest (%)16.015.615.415.2
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected (%)4.94.95.05.05.05.05.0
Data Source
United Nations Statistics Division
World Bank
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Environment