Madagascar's flag    Madagascar


Official language: French, Malagasy
Currency: Malagascy Ariary
Capital City: Antananarivo
Area: 587295km2
Subregional membership(s): East Africa, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Least developed countires, Island countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, Non-Oil Producing, Non-Oil LDCs


28427.3K
2021

Mid-year population
13.2B
2017

GDP at current prices, USD

Under five mortality rate
134.1
2019

Primary enrolment ratio
Population and migration
United Nations Population Division, United Nations Population Fund
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Annual rate of change of the migrant stock (%)20.8020.60
Average annual population growth rate - Total (%)27.1027.0026.9026.8026.7026.6026.5026.3026.20
Average annual population growth rate - Urban (%)46.9046.9044.7044.7044.70
Life expectancy at birth - Female (years)662.3666.6670.9675.1679.1683.0686.8690.5694.1
Life expectancy at birth - Male (years)632.1636.1640.0643.7647.3650.8654.2657.5660.7
Life expectancy at birth - Total (years)647.1651.3655.4659.3663.1666.8670.4673.9677.3
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 0-4 (%)50.5048.60
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 10-14 (%)53.8051.00
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 15-19 (%)52.7054.50
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 20-24 (%)49.8059.20
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 25-29 (%)52.8062.60
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 30-34 (%)63.8066.90
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 35-39 (%)72.6071.40
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 40-44 (%)72.4071.90
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 45-49 (%)68.4069.40
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 5-9 (%)52.4049.40
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 50-54 (%)68.6065.50
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 55-59 (%)74.1066.50
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 60-64 (%)78.4069.30
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 65+ (%)189.70194.00
Population - Female (%)501.60501.50501.50501.40501.30501.20501.20501.10
Population - Female (thousands)115,179118,312121,523124,815128,187131,637135,164138,764142,437
Population - Male (%)498.40498.50498.50498.60498.70498.80498.80498.90
Population - Male (thousands)114,433117,587120,818124,129127,519130,986134,529138,146141,836
Population - Total (thousands)229,613235,899242,341248,944255,705262,623269,693276,910284,273
Population - Urban (%)339.00345.00352.00359.00365.00372.00379.00385.00
Population - Urban (%)339.00345.00352.00359.00365.00
Population - Urban (thousands)77,79081,46085,29089,26093,390
Total fertility rate (per woman)43.743.042.441.841.340.840.339.839.3
Health
United Nations Statistics Division, World Health Organization
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Percentage of children under-five and underweight (%)
Percentage of mothers provided at least one antenatal care - Total (%)820.00820.00
Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age - Total (%)
Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (%)630.00
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (%)325.00328.00330.00
Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities - Total (%)120.00120.00120.00
Education
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Adult literacy rate - Female (%)626.10
Adult literacy rate - Male (%)667.40
Adult literacy rate - Total (%)646.60
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Female (%)1,4341,4511,4731,4401,4311,352
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Male (%)1,4441,4551,4731,4371,4201,329
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Total (%)1,4391,4531,4731,4381,4251,341
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Female (%)379.80383.00382.10371.20370.60352.40
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Male (%)387.30387.20384.20366.80359.90339.50
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Total (%)383.50385.10383.10369.00365.30346.00
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Female (%)41.6046.1045.6046.20
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Male (%)44.3050.3050.5050.30
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Total (%)42.9048.2048.1048.30
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Female (%)521.00586.60
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Male (%)490.80559.50
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Total (%)502.20568.10544.40489.40
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Female (%)
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Male (%)
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Total (%)650.70
Mean years of schooling - Total (years)60.060.0
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Female (%)
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Total (%)
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Female (%)315.70311.40310.60302.90
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Male (%)304.60294.40292.30279.60
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Total (%)304.10310.20302.90301.50291.20
Primary school enrollment - Female (number)22,228,12022,900,29023,674,17023,536,99024,204,44023,245,680
Primary school enrollment - Male (number)22,602,18023,206,93023,961,07023,800,27024,404,44023,240,320
Primary school enrollment - Total (number)44,830,30046,107,22047,635,24047,337,26048,608,88046,486,000
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary education - Total (rate)397.7417.2411.9406.1398.1
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary education - Total (rate)231.2200.4193.0
Pupil-teacher ratio, tertiary education - Total (rate)267.6188.2186.8243.8
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (ratio)9.810.010.010.110.2
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education (ratio)9.69.99.910.110.310.4
Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education (ratio)
Ratio of school attendance rate of orphans to school attendance rate of non orphans (%)
School life Expectancy in Primary - Female (years)72.873.774.973.4
School life Expectancy in Primary - Male (years)73.874.275.373.6
School life Expectancy in Primary - Total (years)73.373.975.173.5
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Female (years)27.227.527.526.7
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Male (years)28.228.228.126.7
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Total (years)27.727.927.826.7
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Female (years)2.32.52.52.5
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Male (years)2.52.82.92.9
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Total (years)2.42.72.72.7
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Female (%)412.90436.80361.00
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Male (%)388.20414.70341.00
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Total (%)400.50425.70351.00
National accounts
United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - current USD (billions)123.5123.8112.4114.9132.1
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - National Currency (billions)272,647299,055329,822364,893411,588
Prices
Economic Commission for Africa, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Consumer price index, All item, 2010=1001,2251,2991,3961,4801,6071,7451,8431,921
Inflation rate (percentage change of CPI over same period of previous year)58.3060.8074.0060.4085.9086.0056.30
inflation rate: end of period price indices percentage change over previous year62.6060.3075.7059.30106.0069.4040.0045.40
Inflation, average, percentage change over previous period58.3060.8074.0060.4085.9086.0056.3041.90
Inflation, average, percentage change over previous period62.6060.3075.6069.5076.7086.0056.2041.9054.0057.00
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (%)62.6060.3075.6069.5076.7086.0056.2041.9054.00
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (index)3,3453,5473,8154,0804,393
Energy
African Union Commission, United Nations Statistics Division, U.S. Energy Information Administration
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Coal - Production, Tonnes (thousands)0.05,7295,976130.0
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)9,62010,07010,11010,57011,070
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)12,221
Electricity - total biofuels and waste production (Giga watt hours)00000
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)15,42115,73016,78016,91018,240
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)6,144
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)8,5769,0109,71010,47011,300
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)8,090
Electricity - total Solar wind tide wave production (Giga watt hours)214.3229.7247268.2
Electricity - total thermal production (Giga watt hours)7,7749,79911,82011,03512,435
Oil - Consumption (metric tons)6,4606,6606,7606,9707,200
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)5,4845,7346,6746,754
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)5.45.45.45.36.66.66.6
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)24,21724,98026,75027,65028,650
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)15,944
Tourism
World Bank, World Tourism Organization, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
International tourism expenditures - current USD (millions)2,5603,1702,4003,000
International tourism receipts (% of total exports)191210.7223272.8
International tourism receipts - current USD (millions)6,0907,4006,9609,1308,4908,790
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)1,9602,220
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)1,9602,2202,4402,9302,550
Rooms in hotels and similar establishments (thousands)222.6233.8240.5252.7268.5281.7
Total contribution to employment, tourism (%)100.80115.00109.70139.00
Total contribution to GDP, tourism (%)120.80137.10130.90166.00
Transport

Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Paved Road (% of total) (%)
Total length of railways (kilometre)6,7306,730
Information society
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Fixed telephone lines (per 100 inhabitants) (%)6.306.306.106.002.702.60
Internet users per 100 inhabitants (%)30.0037.0041.7047.1098.00
Mobile telephone subscribers (number)84,611,20097,138,830106,937,65079,982,53087,304,990
Mobile telephone subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (%)368.50411.80441.30321.30341.40405.70
International trade
International Road Federation, World Bank
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Banking, insurance, financial statistics
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Deposit rate (%) (%)107.50124.00150.00
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)22,06924,14829,335
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)22,06924,14829,33531,76531,16133,34836,183
Interest rate - Lending (%)600.00600.00600.00
Government finance fiscal and public sector statistics
World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Debt service ratio - Per export (ratio)22.928.244.936.632.1
Fiscal deficit (% of GDP)-9,467.5-4,167.4-8,634.2-6,138.8-7,251.0-21,969.9-32,837.7-30,646.3
Net ODA (% of GNI) (%)
Net ODA - current USD (millions)4,9935,8816,7706,2187,796
Net ODA - Per capita (current USD)217.4249.3279.3249.8304.9
Total external debt - as % of GDP (%)360.90346.50440.60402.80401.40397.70377.80435.80468.80478.40
Balance of payments
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Economic Commission for Africa
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Capital Account net - current USD (billions)1.31.82.31.51.2
Compensation of employees - current USD (millions)164.4144.9155.7225.9230.1
Current account balance - as % of GDP (%)-58.70-3.20-18.905.70-34.00
Current account balance - current USD (millions)-6,730.6-1,032.1-2,716.8279.3-530.5
Errors and omissions - current USD (millions)-1,827.3
Financial Account net - current USD (millions)-6,712.3
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, current USD (millions)5,5133,1374,3584,5063,891
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, current USD (millions)63,77862,77256,19158,824
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, current USD (millions)55.5-38.011.01.3-8.6
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, current USD (millions)191.6141.2165.1174.6
Portfolio Investment (Net) - current USD (millions)
Primary income (Net) - current USD (millions)-3,673.2-2,954.6-3,739.2-4,168.4-3,596.8
Secondary income (Net) - current USD (millions)6,4327,4255,3976,9817,422
Services Balance - current USD (millions)-1,012.8-18.5-1,085.3128.0143.8
Trade balance - as % of GDP (%)-97.00
Trade balance - current USD (millions)-8,476.2-5,483.8-3,289.0-2,660.9-4,499.3
Workers remittances (Net) - current USD (millions)3,905
Environment
United Nations Statistics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Indicator2013201420152016201720182019202020212022
Carbon Dioxide Emission - metric tons (thousands)
Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs in ODP (metric tons)160.00
Forest Area as % of Land Area (%)214.00
Land area covered by forest (%)