Madagascar's flag    Madagascar


Official language: French, Malagasy
Currency: Malagascy Ariary
Capital City: Antananarivo
Area: 587295km2
Subregional membership(s): East Africa, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Least developed countires, Island countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, Non-Oil Producing, Non-Oil LDCs


26969.3K
2019

Mid-year population
13.2B
2017

GDP at current prices, USD
44.2
2017

Under five mortality rate
143.8
2016

Primary enrolment ratio
Population and migration
United Nations Population Division, United Nations Population Fund
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Average annual population growth rate - Total (%)27.2027.1027.0026.9026.8026.7026.6026.5026.30
Average annual population growth rate - Urban (%)46.9046.9046.9044.7044.7044.70
Life expectancy at birth - Female (years)657.8662.3666.6670.9675.1679.1683.0686.8690.5
Life expectancy at birth - Male (years)627.9632.1636.1640.0643.7647.3650.8654.2657.5
Life expectancy at birth - Total (years)642.8647.1651.3655.4659.3663.1666.8670.4673.9
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 0-4 (%)50.5048.60
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 10-14 (%)53.8051.00
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 15-19 (%)52.7054.50
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 20-24 (%)49.8059.20
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 25-29 (%)52.8062.60
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 30-34 (%)63.8066.90
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 35-39 (%)72.6071.40
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 40-44 (%)72.4071.90
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 45-49 (%)68.4069.40
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 5-9 (%)52.4049.40
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 50-54 (%)68.6065.50
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 55-59 (%)74.1066.50
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 60-64 (%)78.4069.30
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 65+ (%)189.70194.00
Population - Female (%)501.70501.60501.50501.50501.40501.30501.20501.20501.10
Population - Female (thousands)112,116115,179118,312121,523124,815128,187131,637135,164
Population - Male (%)498.30498.40498.50498.50498.60498.70498.80498.80498.90
Population - Male (thousands)111,351114,433117,587120,818124,129127,519130,986134,529
Population - Total (thousands)223,466229,613235,899242,341248,944255,705262,623269,693
Population - Urban (%)332.00339.00345.00352.00359.00365.00372.00379.00
Population - Urban (%)332.00339.00345.00352.00359.00365.00
Population - Urban (thousands)74,25077,79081,46085,29089,26093,390
Total fertility rate (per woman)44.443.743.042.441.841.340.840.339.8
Health
United Nations Statistics Division, World Health Organization
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Adolescent birth rate per 1,000 adolescent women aged 15-19 - Female (per 1,000 population)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)4,0203,8403,6903,530
Percentage of children under-five and underweight (%)
Percentage of mothers provided at least one antenatal care - Total (%)820.00820.00820.00
Prevalence of undernourishment (%)320.00325.00328.00330.00
Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age - Total (%)
Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (%)610.00630.00
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (%)320.00325.00328.00330.00
Proportion of population using improved drinking water source - Total (%)490.00500.00510.00520.00
Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities - Total (%)120.00120.00120.00120.00
Under-five mortality rate (Per 1,000 live births)555.0534.0515.0496.0
Education
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Statistics Division, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Adult literacy rate - Female (%)682.80626.10
Adult literacy rate - Male (%)750.30667.40
Adult literacy rate - Total (%)715.70646.60
Gender parity index for participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) (ratio)
Gender parity index of teachers in lower secondary education who are trained (ratio)11.9
Gender parity index of teachers in pre-primary education who are trained (ratio)15.76.08.4
Gender parity index of teachers in primary education who are trained (ratio)13.215.515.715.8
Gender parity index of teachers in upper secondary education who are trained (ratio)9.9
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Female (%)1,4311,4341,4511,4731,440
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Male (%)1,4491,4441,4551,4731,437
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Total (%)1,4401,4391,4531,4731,438
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Female (%)372.10379.80383.00382.10371.20
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Male (%)390.10387.30387.30384.20366.80
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Total (%)381.10383.50385.10383.10369.00
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Female (%)39.6041.6046.1045.6046.20
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Male (%)43.2044.3050.3050.5050.30
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Total (%)41.4042.9048.2048.1048.30
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Female (%)521.00586.60
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Male (%)490.80559.50
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Total (%)520.00502.20568.10544.40489.40
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Female (%)753.00
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Male (%)784.10
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Total (%)768.30650.70
Mean years of schooling - Total (years)60.060.060.0
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Female (%)
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Total (%)
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Female (%)311.40315.70311.40310.60302.90
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Male (%)308.40304.60294.40292.30279.60
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Total (%)309.90304.10310.20302.90301.50291.20
Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) (%)
Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) - Female (%)
Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) - Male (%)
Primary school enrollment - Female (number)21,787,10022,228,12022,900,29023,674,17023,536,99024,204,44023,245,680
Primary school enrollment - Male (number)22,240,12022,602,18023,206,93023,961,07023,800,27024,404,44023,240,320
Primary school enrollment - Total (number)44,027,22044,830,30046,107,22047,635,24047,337,26048,608,88046,486,000
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary education - Total (rate)430.7397.7417.2411.9406.1398.1
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary education - Total (rate)276.4231.2200.4193.0
Pupil-teacher ratio, tertiary education - Total (rate)203.3267.6188.2186.8243.8
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (ratio)9.89.8
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education (ratio)9.69.6
Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education (ratio)9.2
Ratio of school attendance rate of orphans to school attendance rate of non orphans (%)
School life Expectancy in Primary - Female (years)72.772.873.774.973.4
School life Expectancy in Primary - Male (years)74.073.874.275.373.6
School life Expectancy in Primary - Total (years)73.373.373.975.173.5
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Female (years)26.627.227.527.526.7
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Male (years)28.328.228.228.126.7
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Total (years)27.427.727.927.826.7
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Female (years)2.22.32.52.52.5
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Male (years)2.52.52.82.92.9
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Total (years)2.32.42.72.72.7
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Female (%)391.90412.90436.80361.00
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Male (%)367.60388.20414.70341.00
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Total (%)379.70400.50425.70351.00
National accounts
United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - current USD (billions)116.6123.5123.8112.4114.9132.1
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - National Currency (billions)255,863272,647299,055329,822364,893411,588
Prices
Economic Commission for Africa, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Consumer price index, All item, 2010=1001,1571,2251,2991,3961,4801,6071,7451,8431,921
Inflation rate (percentage change of CPI over same period of previous year)57.1058.3060.8074.0060.4085.9086.0056.30
inflation rate: end of period price indices percentage change over previous year57.8062.6060.3075.7059.30106.0069.4040.0045.40
Inflation, average, percentage change over previous period57.1058.3060.8074.0060.4085.9086.0056.3041.90
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (%)57.8062.6060.3075.6069.5076.70
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (index)3,1483,3453,5473,8154,0804,393
Energy
African Union Commission, United Nations Statistics Division, U.S. Energy Information Administration
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Coal - Production, Tonnes (thousands)0.05,7295,976130.0
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)9,2709,62010,07010,11010,57011,070
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)10,99712,221
Electricity - total biofuels and waste production (Giga watt hours)000000
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)15,11815,42115,73016,78016,91018,240
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)5,9486,144
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)8,1688,5769,0109,71010,47011,300
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)7,5548,090
Electricity - total Solar wind tide wave production (Giga watt hours)203.3214.3229.7247268.2
Electricity - total thermal production (Giga watt hours)7,7397,7749,79911,82011,03512,435
Oil - Consumption (metric tons)4,4606,4606,6606,7606,9707,200
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)5,4645,4845,7346,6746,754
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)5.45.45.45.45.36.66.66.6
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)23,49524,21724,98026,75027,65028,650
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)15,20215,944
Tourism
World Bank, World Tourism Organization, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
International tourism expenditures - current USD (millions)2,3502,5603,1702,4003,000
International tourism receipts (% of total exports)212.3191210.7223272.8
International tourism receipts - current USD (millions)5,9606,0907,4006,9609,1308,4908,790
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)2,5601,9602,220
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)2,5601,9602,2202,4402,9302,550
Rooms in hotels and similar establishments (thousands)205.2222.6233.8240.5252.7268.5281.7
Total contribution to employment, tourism (%)103.70100.80115.00109.70139.00
Total contribution to GDP, tourism (%)123.40120.80137.10130.90166.00
Transport

Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Paved Road (% of total) (%)
Total length of railways (kilometre)6,7306,7306,730
Information society
United Nations Statistics Division, International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (%)1.401.701.101.00
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (10MB) (%)0.00
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (256KL2M) (%)0.50
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (2L10MB) (%)0.50
Fixed telephone lines (per 100 inhabitants) (%)6.406.306.306.106.002.702.60
Internet users per 100 inhabitants (%)23.0030.0037.0041.7047.1098.00
Mobile telephone subscribers (number)87,786,00084,611,20097,138,830106,937,65079,982,53087,304,990
Mobile telephone subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (%)392.80368.50411.80441.30321.30341.40405.70
Number of fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (10MB) (thousands)2.2
Number of fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (256KL2M) (thousands)115.0
Number of fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (2L10MB) (thousands)109.6
Number of fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (thousands)310.8379.9248.4236.9
Proportion of individuals using the Internet (%)23.0030.0037.0041.70
Proportion of population covered by at least a 2G mobile network (%)921.60749.90
Proportion of population covered by at least a 3G mobile network (%)300.00610.00
Proportion of population covered by at least a 4G mobile network (%)210.00
Total official development assistance for biodiversity, by recipient - current USD (billions)243.3479.7367.8616.2
International trade
International Road Federation, World Bank
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Banking, insurance, financial statistics
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Deposit rate (%) (%)105.00107.50124.00150.00
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)21,95022,06924,14829,335
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)21,95022,06924,14829,33531,76531,16133,34836,183
Interest rate - Lending (%)600.00600.00600.00600.00
Government finance fiscal and public sector statistics
World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Debt service ratio - Per export (ratio)25.322.928.244.936.632.1
Net ODA (% of GNI) (%)
Net ODA - current USD (millions)3,6854,9935,8816,7706,2187,796
Net ODA - Per capita (current USD)164.9217.4249.3279.3249.8304.9
Total external debt - as % of GDP (%)355.30360.90346.50356.90419.00402.80396.60410.20
Balance of payments
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Economic Commission for Africa
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Capital Account net - current USD (billions)0.91.31.82.31.51.2
Compensation of employees - current USD (millions)150.6164.4144.9155.7225.9230.1
Current account balance - as % of GDP (%)-76.50-58.70-3.20-18.905.70-34.00
Current account balance - current USD (millions)-8,819.0-6,730.6-1,032.1-2,716.8279.3-530.5
Errors and omissions - current USD (millions)-1,998.9-1,827.3
Financial Account net - current USD (millions)-8,386.1-6,712.3
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, current USD (millions)7,7765,5133,1374,3584,5063,891
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, current USD (millions)56,50163,77862,77256,19158,824
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, current USD (millions)12.955.5-38.011.01.3-8.6
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, current USD (millions)136.5191.6141.2165.1174.6
Portfolio Investment (Net) - current USD (millions)
Primary income (Net) - current USD (millions)-3,185.7-3,673.2-2,954.6-3,739.2-4,168.4-3,596.8
Secondary income (Net) - current USD (millions)5,9126,4327,4255,3976,9817,422
Services Balance - current USD (millions)-406.2-1,012.8-18.5-1,085.3128.0143.8
Trade balance - as % of GDP (%)-97.00
Trade balance - current USD (millions)-11,138.8-8,476.2-5,483.8-3,289.0-2,660.9-4,499.3
Workers remittances (Net) - current USD (millions)3,6693,905
Environment
United Nations Statistics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Indicator2012201320142015201620172018201920202021
Carbon Dioxide Emission - metric tons (thousands)
CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) (Kilograms)
Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs in ODP (metric tons)160.00160.00
Forest Area as % of Land Area (%)214.00
Land area covered by forest (%)