Madagascar's flag    Madagascar


Official language: French, Malagasy
Currency: Malagascy Ariary
Capital City: Antananarivo
Area: 587295km2
Subregional membership(s): East Africa, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Least developed countires, Island countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, Non-Oil Producing, Non-Oil LDCs


30325.7K
2023

Mid-year population
13.2B
2017

GDP at current prices, USD
66.0
2021

Under five mortality rate
138.2
2022

Primary enrolment ratio
Population and migration
United Nations Population Division, United Nations Population Fund
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Average annual population growth rate - Total (%)2.702.692.682.672.662.652.632.62
Population - Urban (%)34.5035.2035.9036.50
Life expectancy at birth - Male (years)62.362.463.063.063.263.762.962.263.064.1
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 65+ (%)18.9719.40
Population - Female (thousands)12,06612,38412,71013,04513,38413,72914,07714,42514,77515,135
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 35-39 (%)7.267.14
Population - Urban (thousands)8,1468,5298,9269,3399,76710,21110,67011,14511,63612,142
Total fertility rate (per woman)4.34.24.24.14.04.03.93.93.83.7
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 45-49 (%)6.846.94
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 55-59 (%)7.416.65
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 20-24 (%)4.985.92
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 40-44 (%)7.247.19
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 10-14 (%)5.385.10
Population - Urban (%)34.5335.1935.8636.5237.1937.8638.5339.2139.8840.56
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 50-54 (%)6.866.55
Population - Total (thousands)24,21624,85125,50226,17026,84727,53328,22528,91629,61230,326
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 60-64 (%)7.846.93
Life expectancy at birth - Total (years)64.364.365.065.165.365.965.264.565.266.4
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 15-19 (%)5.275.45
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 25-29 (%)5.286.26
Life expectancy at birth - Female (years)66.466.467.167.267.468.267.666.967.668.8
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 0-4 (%)5.054.86
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 5-9 (%)5.244.94
Population - Male (thousands)12,15012,46712,79213,12513,46313,80514,14814,49114,83615,191
Population - Female (%)49.8349.8349.8449.8549.8549.8649.8749.8949.9049.91
Annual rate of change of the migrant stock (%)2.082.06
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 30-34 (%)6.386.69
Average annual population growth rate - Urban (%)4.594.554.524.484.444.404.354.314.264.21
Population - Male (%)49.8549.8549.8649.8749.8849.8849.89
Health
World Bank, World Health Organization, United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
60.760.360.260.260.360.460.660.6
Percentage of mothers provided at least one antenatal care - Total (%)82.00
71.871.371.171.071.171.471.571.4
Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities - Total (%)12.0012.00
71.871.371.171.071.171.471.571.4
Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age - Total (%)
Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (%)
60.760.360.260.260.360.460.660.6
66.466.065.865.765.866.166.166.0
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (%)32.8033.00
66.466.065.865.765.866.166.166.0
Education
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Statistics Division, International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Bank
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Male (%)145.45147.33143.70142.67136.08127.80129.76143.65136.06
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Male (%)38.7338.7238.4235.9735.2533.1434.05
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Female (%)79.1883.0480.66
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Female (%)31.5731.1431.0630.2931.03
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary education - Total (rate)41.741.240.639.8
Literacy rate - Female (%)75.07
Primary school enrollment - Male (number)2,320,6932,396,1072,380,0272,514,7922,440,4442,324,0322,388,2112,668,2842,553,709
Ratio of school attendance rate of orphans to school attendance rate of non orphans (%)
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Female (years)0.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.3
Mean years of schooling - Total (years)5.34.9
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Female (%)
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Male (%)
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education (ratio)1.01.01.01.01.0
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Male (years)2.82.82.82.62.52.4
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Male (years)0.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.3
Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education (ratio)0.90.90.91.01.01.01.01.01.0
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Female (years)2.72.82.82.62.62.5
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Male (%)41.4734.1029.92
Adult literacy rate - Total (%)64.6676.6877.48
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Male (%)5.035.055.03
Primary completion rate - Female (%)46.2046.9047.9049.0055.9151.5052.5049.68
School life Expectancy in Primary - Female (years)7.47.57.37.06.7
Literacy rate - Total (%)76.68
Mean years of schooling - Total (years)6.0
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (ratio)1.01.01.01.0
School life Expectancy in Primary - Total (years)7.47.57.47.06.6
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Total (years)2.82.82.82.62.62.5
Adult literacy rate - Female (%)62.6175.0776.03
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Total (%)38.3538.5138.3136.4235.9833.9335.15
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Male (%)55.95
Pupil-teacher ratio, tertiary education - Total (rate)18.818.724.423.624.8
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Total (%)42.5735.1031.57
Literacy rate - Male (%)78.38
Primary completion rate - Total (%)42.5042.9043.5044.2051.6445.7046.4046.04
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Total (%)145.25147.31143.82143.37136.94129.23131.21145.70138.19
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Total (%)4.824.814.83
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Total (years)0.30.30.30.30.30.30.30.3
Primary completion rate - Male (%)50.0051.0052.3053.7060.2156.7057.9053.55
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Male (%)80.5886.9280.81
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Female (%)145.05147.29143.95144.09137.81130.68132.69147.79140.38
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Female (%)37.9838.3038.2136.8936.7234.7436.26
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Female (%)4.614.564.62
Women to men parity index, as ratio of literacy rates, 15-24 years old (%)1.151.13
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Total (%)65.0779.8584.4380.73
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education (ratio)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Female (%)43.6836.1033.26
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Male (%)30.4629.4429.2327.9628.67
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (ratio)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
School life Expectancy in Primary - Male (years)7.47.57.47.06.6
Adult literacy rate - Male (%)66.7478.3878.93
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Total (%)95.6097.68
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Total (%)31.0130.2930.1529.1229.85
Primary school enrollment - Total (number)4,610,7224,763,5244,733,7265,004,4794,860,8884,648,6004,774,7955,349,0105,125,026
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Female (%)58.66
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Total (%)56.8154.4448.94
Primary school enrollment - Female (number)2,290,0292,367,4172,353,6992,489,6872,420,4442,324,5682,386,5842,680,7262,571,317
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary education - Total (rate)23.120.019.3
National accounts
United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - National Currency (billions)29,90632,98236,48941,159
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - US dollars (billions)12.411.211.513.2
Prices
Economic Commission for Africa, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Inflation, average, percentage change over previous period6.087.406.048.598.605.634.193.75
inflation rate: end of period price indices percentage change over previous year6.037.575.9310.606.944.004.546.16
Inflation rate (percentage change of CPI over same period of previous year)6.087.406.048.598.605.634.193.75
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (index)354.66381.48408.00439.29
Consumer price index, All item, 2010=100129.93139.55147.98160.70174.51184.33192.05199.24
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (%)6.037.566.957.678.605.624.195.40
Energy
African Union Commission, United Nations Statistics Division, U.S. Energy Information Administration
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)2,4982,6752,7652,865
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)
Electricity - total biofuels and waste production (Giga watt hours)0000
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)1,0071,0111,0571,107
Electricity - total thermal production (Giga watt hours)979.911,1821,1041,244
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)
Electricity - total Solar wind tide wave production (Giga watt hours)22.9724.726.82
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)0.50.50.50.70.70.7
Oil - Consumption (metric tons)666.00676.00697.00720.00
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)573.4667.4675.4
Coal - Production, Tonnes (thousands)572.9597.613.0
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)9019711,0471,130
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)1,5731,6781,6911,824
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)
Tourism
World Bank, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), World Tourism Organization
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)222.0
Total contribution to employment, tourism (%)11.5010.9713.90
Total contribution to GDP, tourism (%)13.7113.0916.60
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)222.0244.0293.0255.0
International tourism receipts (% of total exports)21.0722.327.28
International tourism receipts - current USD (millions)740.0696.0912.0849.0879.0951.0202.0
International tourism expenditures - current USD (millions)317.0240.0300.0
Rooms in hotels and similar establishments (thousands)23.424.025.326.828.2
Transport

Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Paved Road (% of total) (%)
Total length of railways (kilometre)673
Information society
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), United Nations Statistics Division, World Bank
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Fixed telephone lines (per 100 inhabitants) (%)0.630.610.600.270.26
30.0061.0063.0164.0065.0065.0065.0067.10
11,67414,23817,83718,1369,645
3.704.174.719.8015.00
0.050.050.010.010
Mobile telephone subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (%)40.1143.0331.3633.3639.6947.2356.2256.30
32,349,39066,930,610107,731,460
2212663,8587,58320,452
Mobile telephone subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (%)41.1844.1332.1334.1440.57
21.0023.0825.0125.0025.0025.0027.11
3.704.174.719.8015.00
19.73
Mobile telephone subscribers (number)9,713,88310,693,7657,998,2538,730,49910,654,710
0.11
0.10.10.10.10.10.110.110.11
0.050.060.070.070.03
Fixed telephone lines (per 100 inhabitants) (%)0.610.600.580.260.260.270.180.09
24,83523,69426,38525,06227,21130,00032,00030,933
74.9978.0179.0280.0080.0080.0088.00
11,79911,8813,3671,492836
000.010.030.07
, 2018=10042,876,11072,639,20031,790,290227,570,46082,668,500
International trade
International Road Federation, World Bank
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Total trade - Export, current USD (millions)3,5423,2153,4474,0724,3394,0092,8413,288
Total trade - Import, current USD (millions)4,2193,7173,7614,5384,9964,8213,9104,415
Banking, insurance, financial statistics
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Interest rate - Lending (%)60.0060.00
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)2,4152,9343,1773,1163,3353,618
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)2,4152,934
Deposit rate (%) (%)12.4015.00
Government finance fiscal and public sector statistics
World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Debt service ratio - Per export (ratio)2.84.43.63.22.93.15.05.0
Fiscal deficit (% of GDP)-946.8-416.7-863.4-613.9-725.1-2,197.0-3,283.8-3,064.6
Net ODA - current USD (millions)588.1677.0621.8779.6
Total external debt - as % of GDP (%)37.8544.0640.2840.1440.3938.5249.0153.3947.84
General government net lending/borrowing - as % of GDP (%)-1.96-2.85-1.11-2.10-1.34-1.42-3.96-6.27
International reserves - current USD (millions)773.8832.01,1841,7401,6931,9812,335
Net ODA - Per capita (current USD)24.9327.9324.9830.49
Total external debt (% of GNI) (%)24.2427.4726.0426.3928.1529.4437.7037.32
Net ODA (% of GNI) (%)5.67
Balance of payments
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Economic Commission for Africa
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, current USD (millions)14.116.517.5
Errors and omissions - current USD (millions)
Workers remittances (Net) - current USD (millions)
Current account balance - as % of GDP (%)-0.27-1.630.48-0.420.72-2.29-5.37-5.46
Compensation of employees - current USD (millions)14.515.622.623.0
Trade balance - as % of GDP (%)-9.70
Trade balance - current USD (millions)-548.4-328.9-266.1-449.9
Financial Account net - current USD (millions)
Services Balance - current USD (millions)-1.9-108.512.814.4
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, current USD (millions)313.7435.8450.6357.9352.6474.3358.5300.2
Current account balance - current USD (millions)-103.2-271.727.9-53.1
Capital Account net - current USD (billions)0.20.20.10.1
Primary income (Net) - current USD (millions)-295.5-373.9-416.8-359.7
Total, Domestic Currency - Net (National Currency)-19954765.16-22799969.53-22870581.24-24288144.01-29111502.25-30672910.31-33313827.61
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, current USD (millions)36.881.989.7106.0117.9101.6119.1115.3
Portfolio Investment (Net) - current USD (millions)
Trade balance - as % of GDP (%)
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, current USD (millions)6,2775,6195,882
Secondary income (Net) - current USD (millions)742.5539.7698.1742.2
Environment
United Nations Statistics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Indicator2014201520162017201820192020202120222023
Carbon Dioxide Emission - metric tons (thousands)
Forest Area as % of Land Area (%)21.40
Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs in ODP (metric tons)
Land area covered by forest (%)