Madagascar's flag    Madagascar


Official language: French, Malagasy
Currency: Malagascy Ariary
Capital City: Antananarivo
Area: 587295km2
Subregional membership(s): East Africa, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), Southern African Development Community (SADC), Least developed countires, Island countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, Non-Oil Producing, Non-Oil LDCs


26969.3K
2019

Mid-year population
13.2B
2017

GDP at current prices, USD
44.2
2017

Under five mortality rate
143.8
2016

Primary enrolment ratio
Population and migration
United Nations Population Division, United Nations Population Fund
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Average annual population growth rate - Total (%)25.024.824.524.424.324.224.124.023.923.9
Average annual population growth rate - Urban (%)42.242.242.242.242.240.240.240.2
Life expectancy at birth - Female (years)583.7587.9592.0596.1599.9603.8607.6611.2614.7618.1
Life expectancy at birth - Male (years)557.4561.2565.1568.9572.5576.0579.3582.6585.7588.8
Life expectancy at birth - Total (years)570.5574.6578.5582.4586.2589.9593.4596.8600.1603.4
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 0-4 (%)46.445.543.7
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 10-14 (%)49.048.445.9
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 15-19 (%)46.247.449.1
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 20-24 (%)43.744.853.3
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 25-29 (%)51.447.556.3
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 30-34 (%)63.657.460.2
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 35-39 (%)67.365.364.3
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 40-44 (%)63.365.264.7
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 45-49 (%)60.261.662.5
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 5-9 (%)48.247.244.5
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 50-54 (%)63.561.759.0
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 55-59 (%)70.066.759.9
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 60-64 (%)71.470.662.4
Migrants as a percentage of the international migrant stock - 65+ (%)155.8170.7174.6
Population - Female (%)451.4451.4451.3
Population - Female (thousands)95,53898,199100,904103,661106,481109,371112,333115,368118,473121,647
Population - Male (thousands)94,82797,496100,215102,990105,828108,736111,716114,767117,887121,076
Population - Total (thousands)190,365195,696201,120206,651212,309218,107224,049230,135236,361242,724
Population - Urban (%)287.1293.4298.8305.1310.5316.8323.1328.5334.8341.1
Population - Urban (%)287.1293.4298.8305.1310.5316.8323.1328.5
Population - Urban (thousands)60,79563,75666,82570,01173,31476,76180,33484,051
Total fertility rate (per woman)41.440.740.039.338.738.237.637.236.736.3
Health
United Nations Statistics Division, World Bank, World Health Organization
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Adolescent birth rate per 1,000 adolescent women aged 15-19 - Female (per 1,000 population)1,305
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)3,9243,7803,6183,4563,3213,177
Neo-natal mortality (Per 1,000 live births)203.4196.2189.9184.5179.1174.6170.1165.6
Percentage of children under-five and underweight (%)
Percentage of mothers provided at least one antenatal care - Total (%)738.0738.0738.0738.0738.0
Prevalence of undernourishment (%)284.4285.3288.0292.5295.2297.0
Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age - Total (%)
Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles (%)594.0558.0549.0567.0
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (%)284.4285.3288.0292.5295.2297.0
Proportion of population using improved drinking water source - Total (%)423.0432.0441.0450.0459.0468.0
Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities - Total (%)99.0108.0108.0108.0108.0108.0
Under-five mortality rate (Per 1,000 live births)542.7520.2499.5480.6463.5446.4
Education
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Statistics Division, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Adult literacy rate - Female (%)614.5563.5
Adult literacy rate - Male (%)675.3600.7
Adult literacy rate - Total (%)644.1581.9
Gender parity index for participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) (ratio)
Gender parity index of teachers in lower secondary education who are trained (ratio)10.7
Gender parity index of teachers in pre-primary education who are trained (ratio)5.414.15.47.6
Gender parity index of teachers in primary education who are trained (ratio)11.914.014.114.2
Gender parity index of teachers in upper secondary education who are trained (ratio)8.9
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Female (%)1,2891,2881,2871,2901,3051,3261,296
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Male (%)1,3131,3131,3041,3001,3091,3261,293
Gross enrolment ratio in primary - Total (%)1,3011,2911,2961,2951,3071,3261,294
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Female (%)320.9334.9341.8344.7343.9334.1
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Male (%)337.9351.1348.6348.6345.8330.1
Gross enrolment ratio in secondary - Total (%)329.4343.0345.2346.6344.8332.1
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Female (%)31.034.735.637.441.541.041.6
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Male (%)33.937.438.939.945.345.545.3
Gross enrolment ratio in teritiary - Total (%)32.536.137.338.643.443.343.5
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Female (%)564.5533.1468.9527.9
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Male (%)564.9524.2441.7503.6
Gross graduation Ratio from Primary education - Total (%)564.7528.6468.0452.0511.3490.0440.5
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Female (%)677.7
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Male (%)705.7
Literacy rates of 15-24 years old - Total (%)691.5585.6
Mean years of schooling - Total (years)54.054.054.054.054.0
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Female (%)
Net enrolment rate in primary education - Total (%)
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Female (%)268.2280.3284.1280.3279.5272.6
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Male (%)268.5277.6274.1265.0263.1251.6
Net enrolment rate in secondary education - Total (%)268.3278.9273.7279.2272.6271.4262.1
Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) (%)
Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) - Female (%)
Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age) - Male (%)
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary education - Total (rate)361.3389.2387.6357.9375.5370.7365.5
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary education - Total (rate)248.8208.1180.4
Pupil-teacher ratio, tertiary education - Total (rate)149.1167.1183.0240.8169.4168.1219.4
Ratio of girls to boys in primary education (ratio)8.88.88.88.8
Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education (ratio)8.68.68.6
Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education (ratio)8.28.48.3
Ratio of school attendance rate of orphans to school attendance rate of non orphans (%)
School life Expectancy in Primary - Female (years)65.965.565.465.566.367.466.1
School life Expectancy in Primary - Male (years)67.667.266.666.466.867.866.2
School life Expectancy in Primary - Total (years)66.866.366.066.066.567.666.2
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Female (years)22.523.924.524.824.824.0
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Male (years)23.725.525.425.425.324.0
School life Expectancy in Secondary - Total (years)23.024.724.925.125.024.0
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Female (years)1.71.92.02.12.32.32.3
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Male (years)2.02.22.32.32.52.62.6
School life Expectancy in Tertiary - Total (years)1.92.12.12.22.42.42.4
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Female (%)360.9377.6352.7371.6393.1324.9
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Male (%)350.5354.5330.8349.4373.2306.9
Survival Rate to the last grade in Primary - Total (%)355.7365.9341.7360.5383.1315.9
National accounts
United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - National Currency (billions)192,801212,166230,277245,382269,150296,840328,404370,429
Expenditure on GDP at current purchaser's values - US dollars (billions)92.3104.8104.9111.2111.5101.2103.4118.9
Prices
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Inflation, all items (index)2,3862,6122,7612,9223,1003,3293,5513,828
Inflation, all items - Change (%)83.385.351.452.554.766.659.974.565.659.9
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (%)91.862.152.056.354.368.062.669.0
Inflation, end of period consumer prices (index)2,5062,6782,8333,0113,1923,4333,6723,954
Energy
African Union Commission, United Nations Statistics Division, U.S. Energy Information Administration
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Coal - Consumption, Tonnes (thousands)0.10.10.10.10.1
Coal - Production, Tonnes (thousands)0.05,1565,378117.0
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)8,3438,6589,0639,0999,5139,963
Electricity - Consumption (Giga watt hours)9,1269,4769,89810,999
Electricity - total biofuels and waste production (Giga watt hours)00000000
Electricity - total fossil fules production (Giga watt hours)4,30213,34013,60713,87914,15715,10215,21916,416
Electricity - total hydro production (Giga watt hours)6,39917,7047,3517,7198,1098,7399,42310,170
Electricity - total Solar wind tide wave production (Giga watt hours)63171.54182.97192.87206.73222.3241.38
Oil - Consumption (metric tons)4,0145,8145,9946,0846,2736,480
Total electricity installed capacity - kilowatt hours (thousands)4,3124,3144,9184,9365,1616,0076,079
Total electricity production (Giga watt hours)10,76431,22021,14521,79522,48224,07524,88525,785
Tourism
World Bank, World Tourism Organization, World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
International tourism expenditures - current USD (millions)1,9442,5922,1152,3042,8532,1602,700
International tourism receipts (% of total exports)180.36171.54191.07171.9189.63200.7245.52
International tourism receipts - current USD (millions)3,8254,5635,3645,4816,6607,641
International tourism, number of arrivals - Total (thousands)2,3041,7641,9982,1962,6372,295
Rooms in hotels and similar establishments (thousands)158.5172.0184.7200.4210.4216.4227.4241.6
Total contribution to employment, tourism (%)75.282.593.390.7103.598.7125.1
Total contribution to GDP, tourism (%)90.4100.1111.1108.7123.4117.8149.4
Transport

Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Paved Road (% of total) (%)146.5146.5
Total length of railways (kilometre)
Information society
United Nations Statistics Division, International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (%)0.30.31.31.51.00.9
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (10MB) (%)0.0
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (256KL2M) (%)0.5
Fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (2L10MB) (%)0.5
Fixed telephone lines (per 100 inhabitants) (%)6.05.85.85.75.75.55.42.42.3
Internet users per 100 inhabitants (%)15.317.120.727.033.337.542.488.2
Mobile telephone subscribers (number)69,405,48978,126,94879,007,40076,150,08087,424,94796,243,88571,984,27778,574,491
Mobile telephone subscribers (per 100 inhabitants) (%)328.1397.2
Number of fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (10MB) (thousands)2.0
Number of fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (256KL2M) (thousands)103.5
Number of fixed Internet broadband Subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (2L10MB) (thousands)98.6
Number of fixed Internet broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (thousands)48.561.7279.7341.9223.5213.2
Proportion of individuals using the Internet (%)15.317.120.727.033.337.5
Proportion of population covered by at least a 2G mobile network (%)829.4674.9
Proportion of population covered by at least a 3G mobile network (%)270.0549.0
Proportion of population covered by at least a 4G mobile network (%)189.0
Total official development assistance for biodiversity, by recipient - US dollars (billions)30.3265.1219.0431.7331.0554.6
International trade
International Road Federation, World Bank
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Banking, insurance, financial statistics
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Statistics Division
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Deposit rate (%) (%)94.595.994.596.8111.6135.0
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)18,81018,22619,75519,86221,73326,402
Exchange rate, period average (national currency per USD)18,81018,22619,75519,86221,73326,40228,58928,04530,013
Interest rate - Lending (%)441.0472.5540.0540.0540.0540.0
Government finance fiscal and public sector statistics
World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Debt service ratio - Per export (ratio)25.716.522.820.625.440.432.928.9
Net ODA (% of GNI) (%)
Net ODA - Per capita (US dollars)203.13185.13148.41195.66224.37251.37224.82274.41
Net ODA - US dollars (millions)4,2964,0263,3164,4945,2936,0935,5967,016
Total external debt - as % of GDP (%)312.2314.7319.8324.8311.9321.2377.1362.5356.9369.2
Balance of payments
International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Economic Commission for Africa
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Capital Account net - US dollars (billions)3.20.70.81.21.62.11.31.1
Compensation of employees - US dollars (millions)319.6274.5135.5148.0130.4140.1203.3207.1
Current account balance - as % of GDP (%)-91.5-63.1-68.9-52.8-2.9-17.05.1-30.6
Current account balance - US dollars (millions)-8,182.0-6,894.5-7,937.1-6,057.6-928.9-2,445.1251.3-477.5
Errors and omissions - US dollars (millions)-1,470.9-921.0-1,799.0-1,644.6
Financial Account net - US dollars (millions)-8,785.8-5,512.0-7,547.5-6,041.0
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, US dollars (millions)6,8827,0936,9994,9622,8233,9224,0563,502
Inward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, US dollars (millions)39,44344,23250,85157,40056,49550,57252,942
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Flow, US dollars (millions)4.9-7.411.649.9-34.29.91.1-7.7
Outward flows of Foreign Direct investment - Stock, US dollars (millions)120.0112.1122.9172.5127.1148.6157.1
Portfolio Investment (Net) - US dollars (millions)-16.90.0
Primary income (Net) - US dollars (millions)-1,338.5-1,394.1-2,867.1-3,305.9-2,659.2-3,365.3-3,751.6-3,237.2
Secondary income (Net) - US dollars (millions)4,9375,3365,3215,7886,6824,8576,2836,680
Services Balance - US dollars (millions)-2,369.6-1,866.5-365.6-911.6-16.7-976.7115.2129.4
Trade balance - as % of GDP (%)-87.3
Trade balance - US dollars (millions)-9,410.5-8,970.3-10,025.0-7,628.6-4,935.4-2,960.1-2,394.9-4,049.3
Workers remittances (Net) - US dollars (millions)4,5523,2373,3023,515
Environment
United Nations Statistics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Indicator2010201120122013201420152016201720182019
Carbon Dioxide Emission - metric tons (thousands)18,77922,046
CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) (Kilograms)0.630.72
Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs in ODP (metric tons)151.20148.50144.00144.00
Forest Area as % of Land Area (%)192.6
Land area covered by forest (%)194.4